Thursday, January 16, 2020

Fundamental Principles to Adult Education Essay

Adult education’s principal and fundamental principle is to harness and enhance adult individual’s skill and knowledge to be productive contributors to the society. Adult learners are provided then with programs and adult education movement for granting more opportunities for their advancement, as their success is regarded as the society’s growth as well. Adult learners should be educated not only for increase of knowledge but also for gaining more integral values as they were expected to give more of themselves and contribute in productivity of the society they belong. Fundamental Principles to Adult Education Being a teacher of a particular credit-based community college course is a very serious and tedious task. Since there would be a variety of 35 students’ whose age range vary from 17- 70 years old, this would certainly mean a† big challenge† for the instructor’s part, in order to teach and provide learning effectively. Malcolm S. Knowles, a prominent writer and instructor, advocated the theory of non-formal (informal) andragogy or adult education in the United States. He taught various principles and wrote numerous detailed accounts discussing on how to facilitate learning especially for the adults. Applying clinical Rogerian psychology in his writings and teaching; in result, he was able to train his students to acquire the attitude of being self-motivated. Furthermore, Knowles initiated the interest for implementation of informal adult education and he differentiated the advantages of the informal education, to the standard, traditional formal education. According to Knowles, formal education are mostly implemented and commonly used in secondary educational schools, commerce schools, and universities; whereas in informal adult education, students are just likely to complete credits on particular vocational or training courses and their classes are to be held on â€Å"community center unions, and other industries and even churches. Moreover, formal education requires that of being stable for completion of long term four-year course or more; when the latter (informal education) serves to be more temporary and flexible. However, it does not mean that informal education is not serious, the system just purports to be flexible enough to meet the needs of the adults who may be busy with their lives (job, family, religious and other activities). And these cases meet the demands of several adults who would want to re-educate themselves and to refresh their knowledge and learning from their vast experience, or to simply increase and gain more knowledge and training from their desires course of interest. In brief, Malcolm Knowles acknowledged the increasing demand and importance of adult education in the present 20th century. Knowles objective of real learning in adults, he emphasizes that an adult learner should acquire self-concept, readiness to learn, experience, orientation towards learning, and especially, the motivation to learn (Smith, 2002). On the other hand, a professor in New Zealand named, T. A. Hunter, also propounded the proliferation and development of an adult education movement. Hunter’s principle of education is grounded on his belief that education is depicted to the successful adjustment of a man to physical and social changes in one’s environment. His blueprint for adult education is the successful integration of biological, physiological, sociocultural, and cognitive knowledge derived from the informal training or education (Hunter, 1929). Adult education should mainly function to harness and enhance adult individual’s skill and knowledge. Adult learners at the same time should still be given the opportunity for advancement since their success is the society’s growth as well. Adult learners should be educated not only for increase of knowledge but also for gaining more integral values as they were expected to give more of themselves and contribute in productivity of the society they belong. In addition, this adult education is more of an inspiration among individuals who are in search for more adequate and applicable learning, and is regarded as an opportunity to success with one’s endeavors and purpose of serving the society (UNESCO, 1960). Fundamental principles of adult education then, should be grounded on the â€Å"realistic† and objective goal of learning. Education as embedded in the infinite realm of knowledge should be available to everyone regardless of age, sex, race, ethnicity, and culture. Adult education, as it plays a significant role and is the demand of most populace, should be taken seriously to address the learner’s need for proper, adequate, and effective learning. Moreover, there is a call for the government, to increase attention for the provision of the proper adult education. Increase of funding for the adult learners’ facilities, venues, and other learning tools is urgent to make this effective learning possible (UNESCO, 1960). References Hunter, T. A. (1929, July 1). Adult education. The New Zealand Railways Magazine, 4, 3. Retrieved from October 13, 2008, from http://www. nzetc. org/tm/scholarly/tei- Gov04_03Rail-t1-body-d7. html Smith, M. (2002) Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and Anadragogy. Tthe encyclopedia of informal Education. Retrieved October 13, 2008, from http://www. infed. org/thinkers/et-knowl. htm UNESCO. (1960). World conference on adult education. Retrieved October 13, 2008, from http://www. unesco. org/education/uie/confintea/montre_e. pdf

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Italian For Travelers - Common Phrases and Expressions

Taking a trip to Italy and want to learn Italian? If you want to have an incredible experience (not like all of those typical tourists) with the language tour to Tuscany you booked or the relatives in southern Italy you’re visiting, learning to speak basic Italian is a must. Its not enough to fare la valigia (pack your suitcase) and watch Italian language movies before you arrive. Whether youre sightseeing in world-famous cities like Florence, Rome, and Venice, on a business trip in Milan, or reuniting with family, there are a multitude of ways to improve your Italian before traveling to Italy. Â   Italian Survival Phrases Your first objective should be to learn Italian survival phrases. Greetings and farewells will earn you goodwill, and ones related to train travel and your hotel will help you solve problems quickly. Plus, remembering a few phrases related to dining out can make the difference between a good meal and a memorable one. After all, if you dont know the difference between a pesca (peach) and pesce (fish), you might go hungry. Â   The Basics If youre pressed for time, focus on the fundamentals. Study the Italian ABCs and Italian numbers, learn how to pronounce Italian words and ask questions in Italian, and brush up on the euro (after all, youll have to reach into your portafoglio—wallet—eventually). Â   How Tos Dont want to miss the next train to Venice? Have tickets to La Scala for 20:00 and arent sure when that is? Here are quick, step-by-step instructions on how to tell time in Italian that will help you avoid missing curtain call. Michelangelos is around the corner. Or so you thought the sign said. Avoid missing the highlights of Italy with simple instructions on how to ask for directions in Italian. Travelers to Italy might also want to know , how to pronounce Italian words, and how to conjugate Italian verbs like a native. Â   Its All in the Hands When all else fails—your is buried deep in your suitcase and you can’t even begin to think in Italian—try to speak Italian with your hands. Its not just pointing and grunting when ordering your favorite , either. Italian hand gestures are a way to convey emotions and passions that Italians will understand implicitly. What might seem at first to be physical theater or a scene in an Italian comedy will actually be a way to connect that will be much appreciated. Â   Buon Appetito! One of the primary reasons for traveling to Italy (besides the magnificent art, the incredible history, the amazing archeological sites) is la cucina italiana. One challenge is since dishes are usually served on separate plates in a specific order. include the autogrill, or roadside snack bar; the osteria, an informal place; the trattoria, which is a medium-priced, often family-run eating establishment; and the paninoteca, a place where sandwiches and salads are often available. Travelers are often puzzled about tipping in restaurants in Italy, and for good reason. Il coperto (cover charge for bread and water)—but not the service charge—is usually included in il conto (the bill). Italians tend to tip minimally. Â   Divertiti - Have fun! One of the best ways to pass time like an Italian is to spend a day (or a month) at the beach. Here are phrases to help you do that. You’re going to see incredible sights, so you’ll want to have suitable vocabulary to express how incredible whatever you’re seeing is. Plus, you’ll find some of the best shopping in the world in Italy. You better be prepared for it. If you’re interested in learning Italian and becoming fluent, read this. And if you’re feeling really brave, you can visit these places that aren’t on the typical tourist’s itinerary. Buon viaggio!

Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The Religious Conscience Of Europe - 1178 Words

Imagine Martin Luther, posting a tweet beginning â€Å"#Let’s Debate, Indulgencies of the Church†. How long would it take that information to reach todays theologians and begin a debate? In the 21st century, we recognize communication as a basic skill that is mastered by an early age. Communication involves a variety of technologies used to coordinate the work of the Church in many nations, strengthen personal faith, and minister to the needs of others. Communication resources have become the glue that holds together nations, corporations, faith communities and families. This has not always been true, the many events of the sixteenth century Reformation vastly influenced the development of Christianity. As the fifteenth century closed, it†¦show more content†¦The humanistic view brought to Western Europe, supported the need for reform with the Church and the voice of indifference wsa gaining influence. Theologians like humanist reformer, Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, were now being heard with new acceptance from many. Erasmus viewed our obedience to Christ more important than the doctrine of the Church, â€Å"He insisted that righteousness was more important than orthodoxy.† (big 17) He produced an edition of the New Testament in Greek translation providing the opportunity for more to read and become familiar with personal view of Christ. The Humanist learning continued to spread across Europe. The ancient ideal of a single church, with the pope as its visible head, was passing away and a new world was being born. Theologians were looking in new ways at all of God’s creation and there was a new understanding of being Christian. â€Å"The view of national unity liked with religious uniformity wsa at the root of the many wars of religion that shook both the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Eventually †¦the conclusion was reached that religious agreement was not necessary for the security of the state†(Big 163) Ultimately, providing political liberty leading to a more healthy separation of the church and politics. Also see page 57 for more info On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther,

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Jay Gatsbys Materialism in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott...

John D. Rockefeller once said, â€Å"I can think of nothing less pleasurable than a life devoted to pleasure.† Throughout F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, the importance of rampant materialism, excessive need for luxury and unprecedented levels of prosperity in the roaring twenties is shown through the life of Jay Gatsby. When one is asked of the 1920s, the first things that come to mind are flapper girls, jazz, the birth of mass culture, and prohibition. This was an age of dramatic social and political change with the nation’s wealth almost doubling in size. Many Americans had extra money to spend, and a new found freedom to go or do whatever they pleased. Jay Gatsby, of The Great Gatsby, was one of the many caught in the trap of desire in the 1920s. Though some freedoms expanded in the 1920s, the eighteenth amendment banned the manufacture and sale of intoxicating beverages. Of course, while this took a toll on many Americans, others took advantage of it. The self-made Jay Gatsby’s inspiration for a new life comes from the wealthy, beautiful Daisy Buchanan whom he falls deeply in love with. Her voice â€Å"full of money† (Fitzgerald 127), drags him and from then on, he is forever hooked. At a time where a fine line was placed between the rich and the poor, Gatsby’s dream of being with her is ruined when her parents deem him unsuitable. With this in mind, Gatsby forms a new dream driven by his love for Daisy and his longing to impress her and her life of luxury.Show MoreRelatedGreat Gatsby Essay2435 Words   |  10 Pages  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   ENG3U0-E 28 January 2012 Materialism in The Great Gatsby Every writer has an inspiration, whether they get inspired from their personal lives or the lives of others, nonetheless they get inspired. Inspiration is what causes others to write, it is the fundamental reasoning behind writing. F. Scott Fitzgerald is no exception. The Great Gatsby is a classic American Novel that focuses on timeless themes such as ambition, greed and finally love. F. Scott Fitzgerald was inspired by various factorsRead MoreThe Decay of American Dream in The Great Gatsby1289 Words   |  6 PagesDream in The Great Gatsby The American Dream is a worldwide known idiom and it emphasizes an ideal of a successful and happy lifestyle which is oftentimes symbolized by the phrase â€Å"from rags-to-riches†. It originated out of the ideal of equality, freedom and opportunity that is held to every American. In the last couple of decades the main idea of the American Dream has shifted to becoming a dream in which materialistic values are of a higher importance and status. The Great Gatsby is a novelRead MoreEssay about F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby1480 Words   |  6 PagesF. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby Any American is taught a dream that is purged of all truth. The American Dream is shown to the world as a belief that anyone can do anything; when in reality, life is filled with impossible boundaries. In the novel, The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald gives us a glimpse into the life of the upper class during the roaring twenties through the eyes of a moralistic young man named Nick Carraway. It is through the narrators dealings with the upper class thatRead More Materialism in The Great Gatsby Essay1075 Words   |  5 PagesMaterialism may be defined as attention to or emphasis on material objects, needs or considerations, with a disinterest in or rejection of spiritual values. The acquisition of material wealth is often equated with happiness in this country. This is true today, and it was true during the 1920s, the setting of F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby. That the majority of Americans believe that wealth and happiness are the same is a result of our market economy that encourages consumption and conditionsRead MoreEssay on F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby968 Words   |  4 Pages The 1920s was a time of excess and growth. Economically, it was a time for great financial gain. Largely because of improvements in technology, productivity increased while overall production costs decreased, and the economy grew. Not only was this time filled with prosperity, but corruption as well. People who had previously worked day and night finally acquired leisure time. Some of the most wealthy people made the choice to fill this free time with gluttony and lust. Many authorsRead MoreThe American Dream in The Great Gatsby by Fitzgerald Essay10 65 Words   |  5 PagesAmerican Dream in The Great Gatsby by Fitzgerald The American Dream is the fantasy of complete independence and self-reliance mixed with the opportunity to attain wealth through ones labours. On the surface, this dream seems almost enchanted, offering people the unique prospect of achieving success regardless of ones race, religion or family history. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is an immortal illustration of the American Dream. Fitzgerald analyses the 1920sRead MoreViews of Entitlement in the Great Gatsby1596 Words   |  7 PagesThe Great Gatsby as Fitzgerald’s explanation of an American Reality which contradicts the American Dream That was always my experience—a poor boy in a rich town; a poor boy in a rich boys school; a poor boy in a rich mans club at Princeton.... However, I have never been able to forgive the rich for being rich, and it has colored my entire life and works.   —F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Life in Letters, ed. Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: Scribners, 1994. pg. 352. The Great Gatsby, by F. ScottRead MoreMaterialism - the Great Gatsby1732 Words   |  7 PagesMaterialism America has been labeled The land of opportunity, a place where it is possible to accomplish anything and everything. This state of mind is known as The American Dream. The American Dream provides a sense of hope and faith that looks forward to the fulfillment of human wishes and desires. This dream, however, originates from a desire for spiritual and material improvement. Unfortunately, the acquisition of material has been tied together with happiness in America. AlthoughRead MoreFailure Of The American Dream In The Writings Of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Zora Neale Hurston, And August Wilson1418 Words   |  6 PagesThis literary study will define the failure of the †American Dream† in the writings of F. Scott Fitzgerald, Arthur Miller, Zora Neale Hurston, and August Wilson. Fitzgerald’s account of the Jay Gatsby s rise to fame in the 1920s defines the failure of financial success as part of the American Dream. Gatsby will eventually die due to his excessive gree d, which is not unlike the emotional death of Willy Loman as he fails to become a successful salesman in Author Miller’s Death of a Salesman. MoreRead MoreEssay about Great Gatsby862 Words   |  4 Pages F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby / Gatsbys Desire for Daisy exploring why Gatsby had such an obsessive desire for Daisy. The writer purports that Gatsby began by pursuing an ideal, not the real woman. In fact, he could not recognize the type of person she had become since they last saw each other. Gatsby lives in a dream world and Daisy is part of that dream. As the novel progresses, however, Gatsbys feelings change. Bibliography lists Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby : The Role

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Culture and Disease Free Essays

Asthma is a disease that is sweeping the country. With so many new cases being reported daily, it has become somewhat of an epidemic. It can be found in almost all corners of the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Culture and Disease or any similar topic only for you Order Now Although it is most common in the US, Canada, and UK, it is growing more common in heavily industrialized countries like Brazil and South Africa. This disease can affect anyone; from women to men, children to adults, Caucasians to African Americans. However, it is most prevalent in African Americans, and even more so in African American women. Asthma is a chronic disease of the lungs and one of the most common long term diseases in children (â€Å"Asthma â€Å", n. d). The actual cause of asthma is unknown and there is currently no cure, but certain things in the environment trigger the inflammation of the airways, ultimately leading to asthma attacks. However, it is manageable and can be prevented by avoiding your triggers. Triggers vary for every person, but the most common are tobacco smoke, dust mites, pets, and pollution (â€Å"Asthma â€Å", n. d). The symptoms include tightness in the chest, coughing, and wheezing (â€Å"Asthma â€Å", n. d). Asthma attacks can be deadly if they are not taken care of right away. During an attack the airways in your lungs shrink and do not allow enough air to pass through. Since we do not know the cause of asthma, why is it that African Americans are three times more likely to be hospitalized from it (â€Å"Asthma Facts And Figures†, n. d)? According to â€Å"Asthma data surveillance† (n. d) African Americans are at 11. 6% for having asthma, compared to Caucasians at 8. 2% or Hispanics at 7. 3%. African Americans are also three times more likely to die from asthma, and African American Women have the highest asthma mortality rate of all groups, more than 2. 5 times higher than Caucasian women (â€Å"Asthma Facts And Figures†, n. d). Some researchers believe that it is socioeconomic while others believe it is genetic. Either way, the numbers speak for themselves; for some reason African Americans are more likely to have asthma than any other culture. Looking at socioeconomic reasons, there are many that can be factors in why African Americans are more likely to develop asthma. According to (Castillo, Jordan III, Tan, n. . ) studies have been done that show even though the same health care is offered to both Caucasians and African Americans; the quality of treatment is often lower for the latter. A certain study even discovered that, in a poor minority neighborhood, there was a higher rate of hospitalization and considerably less people with inhalers (Castillo, Jordan III, Tan, n. d. ). It was also found that minorities compared to Caucasians, would have an increased chance of seeing primary care physicians rather than specialists because of the cost that specialists usually charged (Castillo, Jordan III, Tan, n. . ). Another contributing factor could be lower literacy levels in not only the African American culture, but minorities as a whole. Studies have been done to correlate the two, and what was found was that out of 483 minority patients, mostly African-American only 27% of the study subjects could read at a high school level (Castillo, Jordan III, Tan, n. d. ). This is important because the patients may not comprehend important information given to them about the disease. There are also environmental factors that affect not only this culture, but the population as a whole. Since asthma is triggered by particles in the air, pollution is a big factor in it. Living in areas with higher pollution rates will definitely affect those with asthma. African American children have been known to live in more polluted areas, which help develop more vulnerability to allergens (Castillo, Jordan III, Tan, n. d. ). The pollution in the high level of ozone is the one that can trigger asthma attacks among African-American children. The ozone causes irritation to the lungs, and then creates inflammation in the lungs making it hard to breathe (Castillo, Jordan III, Tan, n. d. ). All of these factors have been known to increase restriction in the airways which results in a greater number of children being hospitalized in these polluted areas. As mentioned before, asthma is not curable. However, it is treatable with the correct combination of medications prescribed by a doctor. Medications can either be given in pill form (anti-inflammatories) or inhaler form (bronchodilators). There are also two types: long term and quick control. The long term medications are to help the patient have fewer and milder attacks, but they will not help during an asthma attack (â€Å"Asthma â€Å", n. ). Inhalers are the most common for quick control. During an asthma attack, taking an inhaler is one way to help control the symptoms, and get the attack under control. The other way to help manage asthma is to avoid triggers. Everyone has different triggers, where pet dander may affect one person; it may not affect someone else. One way schools are working to promote the awarenes s of asthma is by letting students and parents know the air quality for the day. Schools now have a colored flag for the three air qualities. Green is for good, yellow is for moderate, and red for unhealthy. Students often have to miss school because of asthma attacks or asthma related problems. If parents and teachers can work together to educate the students about the importance of staying indoors on unhealthy days, we can help to prevent attacks. Another way is about educating children on the benefits of staying away from people who are smoking. We see the commercials on television constantly; the ones with the baby in the crib and the smoke finding its way from a nearby apartment into the child’s lungs. The baby goes into a coughing fit and we are reminded how easily smoke can travel. Second hand smoke is dangerous, especially to someone whose asthma can be triggered by it, sending them into an attack. Anyone can get this disease, although it is more prevalent in African Americans. Even though it is not curable, educating people on this deadly disease is an important aspect to ensuring those affected by it can manage it. Avoiding your personal triggers and making sure you have spoken with a doctor about a treatment plan is key. In this case, both culture and environmental factors have contributed to why African Americans are more commonly diagnosed with this disease. References: Asthma .  (n.d).  Retrieved from Asthma facts and figures.  (n.d).  Retrieved from Asthma data surveillance.  (n.d).  Retrieved from Castillo, R., Jordan III, M., Tan, L.  (n.d.).  Prevalence of asthma disparities amongst African?American children.  ,  (), 1-3. How to cite Culture and Disease, Papers

Friday, December 6, 2019

Management Work-Life Balance

Question: Write an essay on "Work-Life Balance". Answer: Introduction In the present competitive world, the importance of work-life balance has increased. Organisations are continuously finding ways for creating a balance between work and family for their employees. Employment was traditionally considered just as a means that helps in supporting ones private life. In the present time, employers provide the work-life balance provision to their employees to achieve competitive advantage by creating a harmonious relationship with a workers work and home. This result in improved employee performance, lower stress in the working environment, relaxed personal-time, and an organisations perfect public image (Abendroth den Dulk, 2011). A perfect balanced life can act as a key to healthy living, and everyone is looking for it. Today everybody is focusing on the improvement of their professional career and rising on the corporate ladder to reach the top as quickly as possible. For this, they sacrifice the quality time of family life, and this leaves a negative impact on the personal life. It is necessary for a person to maintain work-life balance to improvise his working life as well as his family life. This essay explores the definition of work-life balance, and also includes the benefits of it for employees and employers. Later, it emphasises why an organisation need of work-life balance and gives recommendations and strategies for the development of work-life balance plan (Alleyne, 2016). Work-Life Balance Life is an act of balance, and in the current rush of society, all are looking for proper work-life balance. It is essential for both employer and employee to search for a true meaning of work-life balance. If describing work-life balances then in a broader sense, it is fit for multiple roles played by a person in his life. It could be taken as a need of everyone to achieve and maintain balance in between work they are for and their personal life. There could be number of ways to describe work-life balance but a general approach associate it with the maintaining of harmony in life (Arunachalam Shah, 2013). When studying the various factors of work-life balance, it is generally taken as ones ability to maintain the multiple demands of life at the same time. The traditional definition of work-life balance explains it as providing loyalty of equal time to non-work and paid work roles (Carmon, Miller, Brasher, 2013). However the recent studies on work-life balance have added few more complex and additional components to it, and they are as follows:- The allocation of time towards work and non-work roles is called as time balance. The involvement balance which is the amount of psychological involvement in non-work and work roles. Satisfaction with work and non-work roles (Crowley Kolenikov, 2013). This new model of work-life balance which incorporates satisfaction, time and involvement components provide an inclusive and extensive picture. In todays time, it is compulsory that an organisation make sure that they are not just encouraging but making work-life balance mandatory which is practical and meet the needs of both the employee and the organisation it is working for to be competitive in the global market. If an organisation does not provide the opportunity for work-life balance to its employees, then it will be threatened with the increasing number of unproductive and dissatisfied employees. It is important for an organisation to understand that just by creating policies are not enough, but the organisational culture should be developed which supports the usage of work-life balance policies (Downes Koekemoer, 2011). The most famous work-life balance policy followed by most of the organization is Flexible working arrangements. It includes flexibility of:- Hours of works like to change in timings of start and finish Work pattern like job sharing or split shifts Work location like working from home (Figueroa, 2016) Many organisations hesitate to follow flexible work arrangements due to the cost implications. But in reality, flexible working hours, work from home, unpaid leaves, part-time job, or job sharing doesnt cost a lot to an organisation. But, childcare, counseling for work-life balance, and cares leave may cost the company some amount of money but its long-term benefits balances it out (Ikeda, 2008). With the change in time family structure has also changed. The new concept of a family includes single parent, a wide range of social communities, and shared parenting. So now the child care is not the only non-work responsibility one has to handle but, other activities like study, sports, volunteer work, care of an elderly, hobbies, or health and fitness have also become important and need to be in balance with work. It is important for the HR department of a company to recognize these new needs of a family of their staff and what impact it will have on the business (JI, 2014). Usually, an organisation pays attention only to employees who are married and have children when designing work-life balance policies which should change for the above-mentioned reasons. The Employee's perspective- the 21st-century life is increasingly complex due to the multiple roles one has to play and juggling in between them job seekers expects work-life balance. Thus, the job that offers flexibility will be considered by the employees. Public Policies offered to the employees- many policies of work-life balance has been introduced by the government by keeping the focus on the current cultural and economic trends, which includes women and parents with children (Kocà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Menard, 2009). The State Government of Queensland has specified work-life policies in detail. Legislative reforms such as the Workers with Family Responsibilities 1981, International Labour Organisation (ILO) Convention 156, changes in industrial relations, antidiscrimination and affirmative action legislation and have also designed the profile of problems related to work-life balance (Malik, Wan, Dar, Akbar, Naseem, 2014). And the result of these reforms is the rules regarding work-life balance which are now in place, and they are as follows:- Compulsory announcing of policies of work-life balance followed by the organisations having more than a hundred employees Increased legal protection to those who have certain family responsibilities. In agreement with the employer, permission of working part-time till childs second birthday (Mountford, 2013). The government has also taken measures to encourage employers to arrange childcare facilities for staffs families. A twelve-month unpaid leave for maternity is provided in both public and private sector. After this one need to join at the same position or equal salary status position in the company. The Equal Employment Opportunities Trust is an initiative of government that is funded and supported by it and initiates yearly work and life awards; it also tracks the progress of initiatives take on work and families in an organization, and promotes work-life balance through a press release, conference, and speeches (Munn, 2013). The Department of Labour has established a project on Work-Life Balance in 2003, which ended in 2004. His projects showed that most of the people think that their non-work and work life is not in balance. And this project recommended the government assistance to the employers so it could help them in taking up work-life balance initiatives. Family Friendly Benefits- the quality of ones personal life has high importance. The common quote on should work to live rather than live to work confirms it. It is certain that if a choice is given between work and private life, then one will definitely select private life over work. Employees prefer to join such organisations where career development is not interfered due to family responsibilities. An employee expects encouragement and support from their employers to excel in their work commitments and improve their personal lives too (Pitt-Catsouphes, James, McNamara, Cahill, 2015). The Employer's perspective- along with government policies, organisations is also developing proper policies that make an attempt to simplify the work-life balance of their employees. These work-life balance policies increase the liberty of a worker in making a coordination and integration in between work aspects and non-work aspects. The three main work-life balance policies designed to help workers in balancing their non-work and work lives are flexible work options, dependent-care benefits, and specialised leave policies (R, 2016). Some initiatives implemented by the organisations with a purpose of improving work-life balance of their staff and they are as follows: - Skill Shortages- the positive pay back of the investment is the main factor behind an organisations commitment to investing in work-life balance policies. Now the question is really investing in these policies will provide any positive returns? In the present times, organisations are realising the importance of work-life balance and determined the direct relationship between the work quality of an employee and the quality of his personal life. This gave a valid reason to an organisation to invest and promote integration between work and family (Saltmarsh Randell-Moon, 2015). Many countries like Australia and New Zealand are heading towards skill shortage because of declining population growth and aging population. This interprets that in future there will be no or enough skilled workers to take the place of the retirees. Also, people who will have elderly dependent with them will also increase in the labour force. So it is compulsory for organisations to take flexible work-life balance policies options to attract skilled workers. Employee retention- retaining employees have become a huge challenge for many organisations in the present times. With the help of work-life balance policies an employees experience in an organisation can be improved and this will help in retaining employees. To turnover an employee, the cost includes separation costs, training cost, and replacement costs. Due to these huge expenses, organisations always look for ways to retain their employees in their organisation. The direct relationship between the reduction of employee turnover and providing flexible work options makes the work-life balance a strategic human resource affair. Company Image- organisations image enhances and they are considered as good corporate citizens if the show authentic interest in the promotion and support of work-life balance policies. However, this also true that an organisations initiative to be taken as a good corporate company may depend on its public visibility, the size of the business organisation, or the nature of business an organisation is running. Meanwhile, big organisations might have a provision of flexible work options for gaining a good public image, but, small organisations and companies may not do the same because in a small company the return of investment is also low (Stankiewicz, Bortnowska, Ã…Â ychmus, 2014). A government organisation may prefer considering opting for flexible work options as they are responsible towards the public, but when it comes to a private organisation where the main aim is to earn a profit, the consideration of flexible work option may not be just due to the visibility of the company image in the public. There are a number of advantages for an organisation in implementing flexible work option for its employees. The advantages for employees and employers are as follows Better mental and physical health of employees After maternity leave earlier return to work Reduced absenteeism Improved job satisfaction Reduced turnover Availability of an increased and broadened talent pool Loyal employees Retention of skilled aged workers (Swanberg Simmons, 2008) Recent surveys and studies have shown that due flexible work options the ratio of absenteeism has reduced in a healthy context. Some recommendations in providing a better balance between life and work of employees by using flexible work options are as follows: - The support of management in providing work-life balance through flexible work options is very important for an organisation to have success. Just having policies will not be enough for it. Regular surveys and studies of employees and their needs will help the organisation to understand the actual needs of an employee and design the policies appropriately Assistance to employees is necessary so they prioritise their work, or they will take everything equally important (Yam, Fehr, Barnes, 2014) Training to the managers and supervisors need to be given so they could understand their staff and also understand when they are overworked Organisations should organise training programs and seminars for employees to make them understand the importance of their personal life and work and how to balance between them Restrict the work taken by employees for home on a regular basis. For this, the corresponding supervisor should be responsible so that work given to an employee need to be completed in office, not at home. Leave options should be available to the employee like a pet care leave, or a community service leave (YU, 2008) Sometimes work from home should be allowed, in the form of flexitime and sick leave even without a certificate of doctor Time to time visit of children should be allowed in the office. Days like bring kids at work can be a good idea. Implementing the option of work from home for those who have to take care of elderly people of children. Organising an organisations funded family activities like movie nights, family dinners, trips to theme parks may be for once a year which can be organised on a weekend or even on a weekday. It is necessary for the organisations to promote work-life balance policies on every available opportunity they get. These policies should be the part of employees working experience in an organisation and not just in companys handbook or in the orientation sessions (Abendroth den Dulk, 2011). Conclusion Initiatives if taken regarding work-life balance have the potential to notably decrease absenteeism, retain organisational staff and knowledge, and improve employees morale even during harsh economic times. In the present phase of the globalisation of markets, all the companies have aimed to reduce their costing; it becomes the responsibility of HR department to understand the need of work-life balance and issues related to it. Employees who are working and their friend or family members are serving their country, single mothers working hard to earn a living and raise her children, employee for whom their personal life matters a lot, couples facing issues in managing dual careers and their marriage, or even companies who loose talent as well as important knowledge about the company when an employee leave the company for better opportunities they all are in need of a work-life balance which will give them a win-win situation either it is an employee or an employer (Alleyne, 2016). However just developing a work-life balance policies, will not be sufficient. The organisation has to make sure that there managers are implementing these policies and they are being practiced. The organisational environment and culture is an important factor when deciding upon the provisions of work-life balance. The organisation having carefully planned flexible work options will excel with a support of co-workers and managerial department. The most of the HR policies regarding work-life balance is concentrated on employees who live with a family having children. But with the change in family structure in the present time, the work-life balance policies are also needed to be changed accordingly and to be designed by keeping the new family structure such as shared parents, single parent, singles, and elderly care (Carmon, Miller, Brasher, 2013). Finally, it is better to adapt and initiate a give and take philosophy. According to this philosophy, both the employee and the employer have to adjust a little. And these small compromises will provide perfect harmony between work and non-work roles and in a long run prove highly beneficial for the organisation as well as for the employee (Crowley Kolenikov, 2013). References Abendroth, A. den Dulk, L. (2011). Support for the work-life balance in Europe: the impact of state, workplace and family support on work-life balance satisfaction.Work, Employment Society,25(2), 234-256. Alleyne, T. (2016). Work Life Balance What Balance?.Frontiers In Pediatrics,3. Arunachalam, R. Shah, M. (2013). Compensated for Life.Journal Of Human Resources,48(2), 345-369. Carmon, A., Miller, A., Brasher, K. (2013). Privacy Orientations: A Look at Family Satisfaction, Job Satisfaction, and WorkLife Balance.Communication Reports,26(2), 101-112. Crowley, J. Kolenikov, S. (2013). Flexible Work Options and Mothers' Perceptions of Career Harm.The Sociological Quarterly,55(1), 168-195. Downes, C. Koekemoer, E. (2011). Worklife balance policies: Challenges and benefits associated with implementing flexitime.SA J. Hum. Resour. Manag.,9(1). Figueroa, M. (2016). WorkLife Balance Does Not Mean an Equal Balance.Frontiers In Pediatrics,4. IKEDA, S. (2008). Policies on Work-Life Balance.KASYA,20(2), 85-94. JI, R. (2014). Work Life Balance of Women Employees.International Journal Of Innovative Research In Science, Engineering And Technology,03(10), 16840-16843. Kocà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ Menard, S. (2009). Flexible work options for older workers.Strategic HR Review,8(2), 31-36. Malik, M., Wan, D., Dar, L., Akbar, A., Naseem, M. (2014). The Role Of Work Life Balance In Job Satisfaction And Job Benefit.JABR,30(6), 1627. Mountford, H. (2013). Lets Hang on to What Weve Got: Flexible Work Options and the Retention of Older Workers in Australia.Business And Management Research,2(4). Munn, S. (2013). Unveiling the Work-Life System: The Influence of Work-Life Balance on Meaningful Work.Advances In Developing Human Resources,15(4), 401-417. Pitt-Catsouphes, M., James, J., McNamara, T., Cahill, K. (2015). Relationships between Managers Who are Innovators/Early Adopters of Flexible Work Options and Team Performance.Journal Of Change Management,15(3), 167-187. R, R. (2016). The impact of Information Technology on Job Related Factors lik e Health and Safety, Job Satisfaction, Performance, Productivity and Work Life Balance.J Bus Fin Aff,05(01). Saltmarsh, S. Randell-Moon, H. (2015). Managing the risky humanity of academic workers: Risk and reciprocity in university work-life balance policies.Policy Futures In Education,13(5), 662-682. Stankiewicz, J., Bortnowska, H., Ã…Â ychmus, P. (2014). Conditions necessary to maintain work-life balance of employees - in the light of the research results.Management,18(1).

Friday, November 29, 2019

Role of Culture free essay sample

Cultural values, beliefs, and traditions significantly affect family life. Cultures are more than language, dress, and food customs. Cultural groups may share race, ethnicity, or nationality, but they also arise from cleavages of generation, socioeconomic class, sexual orientation, ability and disability, political and religious affiliation, language, and gender to name only a few. Two things are essential to remember about cultures: they are always changing, and they relate to the symbolic dimension of life. The symbolic dimension is the place where we are constantly making meaning and enacting our identities. Cultural messages from the groups we belong to give us information about what is meaningful or important, and who we are in the world and in relation to others our identities. Cultural messages, simply, are what everyone in a group knows that outsiders do not know. They are the water fish swim in, unaware of its effect on their vision. They are a series of lenses that shape what we see and dont see, how we perceive and interpret, and where we draw boundaries. We will write a custom essay sample on Role of Culture or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In shaping our values, cultures contain starting points and currencies[1]. Starting points are those places it is natural to begin, whether with individual or group concerns, with the big picture or particularities. Currencies are those things we care about that influence and shape our interactions with others. | How Cultures Work Though largely below the surface, cultures are a shifting, dynamic set of starting points that orient us in particular ways and away from other directions. Each of us belongs to multiple cultures that give us messages about what is normal, appropriate, and expected. When others do not meet our expectations, it is often a cue that our cultural expectations are different. We may mistake differences between others and us for evidence of bad faith or lack of common sense on the part of others, not realizing that common sense is also cultural. What is common to one group may seem strange, counterintuitive, or wrong to another. Cultural messages shape our understandings of relationships, and of how to deal with the conflict and harmony that are always present whenever two or more people come together. Writing about or working across cultures is complicated, but not impossible. Here are some complications in working with cultural dimensions of conflict, and the implications that flow from them:Culture is constantly in flux as conditions change, cultural groups adapt in dynamic and sometimes unpredictable ways. Culture is largely below the surface, influencing identities and meaning-making, or who we believe ourselves to be and what we care about it is not easy to access these symbolic levels since they are largely outside our awareness. Cultural influences and identities become important depending on context. When an aspect of cultural identity is threatened or misunderstood, it may become relatively more important than other cultural identities and this fixed, narrow identity may become the focus of stereotyping negative projection, and conflict. This is a very common situation in intractable conflicts. Since culture is so closely related to our identities (who we think we are), and the ways we make meaning (what is important to us and how), it is always a factor in conflict. Cultural awareness leads us to apply the Platinum Rule in place of the Golden Rule. Rather than the maxim Do unto others as you would have them do unto you, the Platinum Rule advises: Do unto others as they would have you do unto them. Cultures are embedded in every conflict because conflicts arise in human relationships. Cultures affect the ways we name, frame, blame, and attempt to tame conflicts. Whether a conflict exists at all is a cultural question. In an interview conducted in Canada, an elderly Chinese man indicated he had experienced no conflict at all for the previous 40 years. [2] Among the possible reasons for his denial was a cultural preference to see the world through lenses of harmony rather than conflict, as encouraged by his Confucian upbringing. Labeling some of our interactions as conflicts and analyzing them into smaller component parts is a distinctly Western approach that may obscure other aspects of relationships. Culture is always a factor in conflict, whether it plays a central role or influences it subtly and gently. For any conflict that touches us where it matters, where we make meaning and hold our identities, there is always a cultural component. Intractable conflicts like the Israeli-Palestinian conflict or the India-Pakistan conflict over Kashmir are not just about territorial, boundary, and sovereignty issues they are also about acknowledgement, representation, and legitimization of different identities and ways of living, being, and making meaning. Conflicts between teenagers and parents are shaped by generational culture, and conflicts between spouses or partners are influenced by gender culture. In organizations, conflicts arising from different disciplinary cultures escalate tensions between co-workers, creating strained or inaccurate communication and stressed relationships. Culture permeates conflict no matter what sometimes pushing forth with intensity, other times quietly snaking along, hardly announcing its presence until surprised people nearly stumble on it. Culture is inextricable from conflict, though it does not cause it. When differences surface in families, organizations, or communities, culture is always present, shaping perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes. When the cultural groups we belong to are a large majority in our community or nation, we are less likely to be aware of the content of the messages they send us. Cultures shared by dominant groups often seem to be natural, normal the way things are done. We only notice the effect of cultures that are different from our own, attending to behaviors that we label exotic or strange. Though culture is intertwined with conflict, some approaches to conflict resolution minimize cultural issues and influences. Since culture is like an iceberg largely submerged it is important to include it in our analyses and interventions. Icebergs unacknowledged can be dangerous, and it is impossible to make choices about them if we dont know their size or place. Acknowledging culture and bringing cultural fluency to conflicts can help all kinds of people make more intentional, adaptive choices. Given cultures important role in conflicts, what should be done to keep it in mind and include it in response plans? Cultures may act like temperamental children: complicated, elusive, and difficult to predict. Unless we develop comfort with culture as an integral part of conflict, we may find ourselves tangled in its net of complexity, limited by our own cultural lenses. Cultural fluency is a key tool for disentangling and managing multilayered, cultural conflicts. Cultural fluency means familiarity with cultures: their natures, how they work, and ways they intertwine with our relationships in times of conflict and harmony. Cultural fluency means awareness of several dimensions of culture, including * Communication, * Ways of naming, framing, and taming conflict, * Approaches to meaning making, * Identities and roles. Each of these is described in more detail below. As people communicate, they move along a continuum between high- and low-context. Depending on the kind of relationship, the context, and the purpose of communication, they may be more or less explicit and direct. In close relationships, communication shorthand is often used, which makes communication opaque to outsiders but perfectly clear to the parties. With strangers, the same people may choose low-context communication. Low- and high-context communication refers not only to individual communication strategies, but may be used to understand cultural groups. Generally, Western cultures tend to gravitate toward low-context starting points, while Eastern and Southern cultures tend to high-context communication. Within these huge categories, there are important differences and many variations. Where high-context communication tends to be featured, it is useful to pay specific attention to nonverbal cues and the behavior of others who may know more of the unstated rules governing the communication. Where low-context communication is the norm, directness is likely to be expected in return. There are many other ways that communication varies across cultures. Ways of naming, framing, and taming conflict vary across cultural boundaries. As the example of the elderly Chinese interviewee illustrates, not everyone agrees on what constitutes a conflict. For those accustomed to subdued, calm discussion, an emotional exchange among family members may seem a threatening conflict. The family members themselves may look at their exchange as a normal and desirable airing of differing views. These are just some of the ways that taming conflict varies across cultures. Third parties may use different strategies with quite different goals, depending on their cultural sense of what is needed. In multicultural contexts, parties expectations of how conflict should be addressed may vary, further escalating an existing conflict. Approaches to meaning-making also vary across cultures. Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars suggest that people have a range of starting points for making sense of their lives, including: * universalist (favoring rules, laws, and generalizations) and particularist (favoring exceptions, relations, and contextual evaluation) * specificity (preferring explicit definitions, breaking down wholes into component parts, and measurable results) and diffuseness (focusing on patterns, the big picture, and process over outcome) * inner direction (sees virtue in individuals who strive to realize their conscious purpose) and outer direction (where virtue is outside each of us in natural rhythms, nature, beauty, and relationships) * synchronous time (cyclical and spiraling) and sequential time (linear and unidirectional). 5] When we dont understand that others may have quite different starting points, conflict is more likely to occur and to escalate. Even though the starting points themselves are neutral, negative motives are easily attributed to someone who begins from a different end of the continuum. [6]For example, when First Nations people sit down with government representatives to negotiate land claims in Canada or Australia, different ideas of time may make it difficult to establish rapport and make progress. First Nations people tend to see time as stretching forward and back, binding them in relationship with seven generations in both directions. Their actions and choices in the present are thus relevant to history and to their progeny. Government negotiators acculturated to Western European ideas of time may find the telling of historical tales and the consideration of projections generations into the future tedious and irrelevant unless they understand the variations in the way time is understood by First Nations people. Of course, this example draws on generalizations that may or may not apply in a particular situation. There are many different Aboriginal peoples in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and elsewhere. Each has a distinct culture, and these cultures have different relationships to time, different ideas about negotiation, and unique identities. Government negotiators may also have a range of ethno cultural identities, and may not fit the stereotype of the woman or man in a hurry, with a measured, pressured orientation toward time. Examples can also be drawn from the other three dimensions identified by Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars. When an intractable conflict has been ongoing for years or even generations, should there be recourse to international standards and interveners, or local rules and practices? Those favoring a universalist starting point are more likely to prefer international intervention and the setting of international standards. Particularlists will be more comfortable with a tailor-made, home-grown approach than with the imposition of general rules that may or may not fit their needs and context. Specificity and diffuseness also lead to conflict and conflict escalation in many instances. People, who speak in specifics, looking for practical solutions to challenges that can be implemented and measured, may find those who focus on process, feelings, and the big picture obstructionist and frustrating. On the other hand, those whose starting points are diffuse are more apt to catch the flaw in the sum that is not easy to detect by looking at the component parts, and to see the context into which specific ideas must fit. Inner-directed people tend to feel confident that they can affect change, believing that they are the masters of their fate, the captains of their souls. They focus more on product than process. Imagine their frustration when faced with outer-directed people, whose attention goes to nurturing relationships, living in harmony with nature, going with the flow, and paying attention to processes rather than products. As with each of the above sets of starting points, neither is right or wrong; they are simply different. A focus on process is helpful, but not if it completely fails to ignore outcomes. A focus on outcomes is useful, but it is also important to monitor the tone and direction of the process. Cultural fluency means being aware of different sets of starting points, and having a way to speak in both dialects, helping translate between them when they are making conflict worse. This can be done by storytelling and by the creation of shared stories, stories that are co-constructed to make room for multiple points of view within them. Often, people in conflict tell stories that sound as though both cannot be true. Narrative conflict-resolution approaches help them leave their concern with truth and being right on the sideline for a time, turning their attention instead to stories in which they can both see themselves. Another way to explore meaning making is through metaphors. Metaphors are compact, tightly packaged word pictures that convey a great deal of information in shorthand form. For example, in exploring how a conflict began, one side may talk about its origins being buried in the mists of time before there were boundaries and roads and written laws. The other may see it as the offspring of a vexatious lawsuit begun in 1946. Neither is wrong the issue may well have deep roots, and the lawsuit was surely a part of the evolution of the conflict. As the two sides talk about their metaphors, the more diffuse starting point wrapped up in the mists of time meets the more specific one, attached to a particular legal action. As the two talk, they deepen their understanding of each other in context, and learn more about their respective roles and identities. In collectivist settings, the following values tend to be privileged: * cooperation * filial piety (respect for and deference toward elders) * participation in shared progress * reputation of the group * interdependence In individualist settings, the following values tend to be privileged: * competition * independence * individual achievement * personal growth and fulfillment * self-reliance When individualist and communitarian starting points influence those on either side of a conflict, escalation may result. Individualists may see no problem with no holds barred confrontation, while communitarian counterparts shrink from bringing dishonor or face-loss to their group by behaving in unseemly ways. In the end, one should remember that, as with other patterns described, most people are not purely individualist  or communitarian. Rather, people tend to have individualist or communitarian starting points, depending on ones upbringing, experience, and the context of the situation. Conclusion There is no one-size-fits-all approach to conflict resolution, since culture is always a factor. Cultural fluency is therefore a core competency for those who intervene in conflicts or simply want to function more effectively in their own lives and situations. Cultural fluency involves recognizing and acting respectfully from the knowledge that communication, ways of naming, framing, and taming conflict, approaches to meaning-making, and identities and roles vary across cultures.